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Pahlavi Literature

6) Pahlavi texts on religious subjects

34.Commentary of Phlv. Vend. 51. 35. Rivayat of Hemet Ashavahishtan. 50
36. Shikand-gumanic Vichar. 53. 37. Shayast ne-shayast, with appendix. Sls. 54.
38. Dana-i Menog Khrat. 55. 39. Arta-Viraf namak. AV. 57.
40. Stayishn-i Si-rozak. 56 41. Jamasp namak. 66.
42. Bahman yasht. Byt. 59. 43. Matigan-i Yosht-i Fryano. Yf. 58
44. Questions answered by Avesta texts. 52. 45. Andarz-i Aturpat-i Maraspendan, 73, with Hekayat-i Rozha. 67.
46. Patit-i Iranig. 65. 47. Pandnamak-i Vozurg-Mihr. 77.
48. Patit-i Aturpat-i Maraspendan. 64. 49. Pandnamak-i Zartusht. 70.
50. Andarz-i Aoshnar-i danak. 60. 51. Afrin-i shash Gahanbar. 85.
52. Vachak-i echand-i Aturpat-i Maraspandan. 80. 53. Matigan-i gujastak Abalish. 61.
54. Matigan-i si roz. 68. 55. Patit-i Vitartakan. 65.
56. Patit-i khut. 63. 57. Matigan-i haft Ameshaspand. 87.
58. Admonitions to Mazdayasnans. 71. 59. Injunctions to Behdens. 68.
60. Matigan-i mah Fravartin roz Khurdat. 68. 61. Cahracteristics of a happy man. 84.
62. Afrin-i haft Ameshaspand. 85. 63. A Father instructing his son. 88.
64. Stayishn-i dron. 82. 65. Afrin-i arta-fravash. 85.
66. Andarz danak mart. 89. 67. Ashirvad. 90
68. Afrin-i myazd. 85. 69. Andarz-i Khusro-i Kavatan. 72.
70. Chim dron. 91. 71. Namaz-i Aurmazd. 92.
72. Sayings of Atur-farnbag and Bakht-afrit. 75. 73. Nirang-i boi-datan. 86.
74. Nam-stayishnih. 93. 75. Five dispositions of priests and ten admonitions. 79.
76. Afrin-i Vozurgan. 85. 77. Afrin-i gahanbar chashnih. 85.
78. Coming of Vahram-i varjavand. 83. 79. Daruk-i khursandih. 81.
80. Replies of three learned men to the king. 62. 81. Matigan-i si yazdan. 67, 94.

The Rivayat of Hemet-i Ashavahishtan is a collection of about 270 inquiries and replies, containing about 22,000 words and found only in the codex commencing with the MS. F (see 43) of the Iranian Bundahishn, which it follows immediately. It appears to have been written by the same copyist, between 1626 and 1629, and begins with the following statement:-

'These several questions, asked of the saintly Hemet, son of Ashavahisht, I, Atur-gushnasp, son of Mihr-atakhsh, son of Atur-gushnasp, sought in the abode of happiness of the brillant fire, out of a happily disinterred (xush-kand) copy; may it become fortunate and beneficial! Question:-There was a man and there was his only wife, a privileged one, and a son and daughter have attained to the age of fifteen years; the son is one who went to a foreign place, &c.'

The copyist mentioned in this introductory statement was, no doubt, the writer of some much earlier copy, whose father's name is mentioned, with those of other commentators, in the final reply about the Bareshnum ceremony. Another reply records a decision made in 1028 by Freh-Srosh, son of Vahrom. After the final reply some observations follow, on the necessity of those who have no instinctive wisdom obtaining acquired wisdom from the learned and wise; also the names of the limbs of good and bad men are given; these additions amounting to about 1000 words altogether.

A Commentary on the Pahlavi Vendidad follows this Rivayat in the codex F, and contains about 27,000 words. It gives paraphrases of very numerous passages from sixteen fargards of the Pahlavi Vendidad, with extensive commentaries in which the opinions of about seventeen commentators are quoted, nearly all of whom are mentioned in other Pahlavi versions of Avesta texts. The six fargards which seem to be unmentioned are Farg. I, II, XIX-XXII; and the name of the compiler of the commentary, who writes in the first person, has not been noticed. The passages commented on are not always considered in the order in which they stand in the text.

Then follow Questions chiefly answered by quoting Avesta texts, extending to about 3000 words and commencing with the phrase 'some questions from a copy happily disinterred'. These miscellaneous religious questions are 58 in number, and all the answers quote Avesta texts, except the first four and the fifty-fifth. These are 124 such questions of which only 18 have been found in any of the extant Avesta texts, and sometimes several successive questions from a complete text. They have all been published and translated into French in Darmesteter's Zend-Avesta, iii. A colophon appended to these questions states that 'these decisions of the religion of the Mazda-worshippers', which may perhaps include the preceding Commentary and Rivayat, were copied in 1629 by Fretun Mardshapan, the writer of the MS. F of the Iranian Bundahishn, from his father's copy which was copied from his great grand-uncle's copy of a MS. written by a priest who is known to have signed a letter sent from Yazd to India in 1478, of which letter a copy is preserved in the Persian Rivayats.

This colophon is followed by the Afrin-i Zartusht, Av.-Phlv., and a Pahlavi Farhang, the latter part of which has been lost. The whole codex contains 372 of its original folios, and the above details, regarding the Rivayat, Commentary, and Questions, are derived from information kindly supplied by its owner, Tahmuras Dinshawji Anklesaria of Bombay.

The Shikand-gumanic Vichar, or 'doubt-dispelling explanation', is a controversial religious work containing about 16,700 words, and is the nearest approach to a philosophical treatise that remains extant in Pahlavi literature. It was written by Martan-farrukh, son of Aurmazd-dat, probably in the latter half of the ninth century, as it mentions the Denkart of Atur-farnbag, but not that of Aturpat, son of Hemet, (see 34). The author by pointing out the inconsistencies of other faiths which do not explain how an all-good and omnipotent creator can permit the existence of evil. After replying to some sceptical questions addressed to him by a friend at Ispahan, he proceeds to refute the notions of atheists and materialists, and to prove the existence of a powerful opponent who is the source of all evil; pointing out the inconsistencies of the Kuran and the Jewish and Christian scriptures, he is proceeding with a refutation of the heresy of Mani, when his arguments are broken off by the loss of the remainder of his treatise in all known MSS.

The original Pahlavi text of this treatise has not yet been discovered, but only its Pazand-Sanskrit version, prepared by Neryosang, son of Dhaval, who certainly flourished at the latter end of the twelfth century, or twenty-eight generations earlier than the present Dasturs, as can be shown from documentary evidence, though the Dasturs themselves can recollect the names of only twenty-three representatives of these generations. All the Pahlavi fragments of this text, that exist in a few MSS., have evidently been derived from the Pazand version, because they reproduce certain erroneous readings contained in that version; at the same time, there are many words in the Pazand version which are merely misreadings of Pahlavi words, showing that the Pazand has been derived from a Pahlavi original, as Neryosang states in his Sanskrit introduction. The oldest complete authority for the Paz.-Skr. version is a MS. in Dastur Jamasp's library at Bombay, which was written by Asadin Kaka in 1569. There is, however, a still older authority for the first half of this version, excepting its first three folios, which was probably written in the fifteenth century, and belongs to the library of Dastur Hoshang at Poona. From a copy of this older MS., when nearly complete, Asadin Kaka must have copied. There are also several modern MSS. of this text, but all descended from one or other of these two authorities. An English translation of this treatise was published in SBE.; and the Pazand and Sanskrit texts have been since edited by Hoshang and West.

The Shayast ne-shayast, or 'proper and improper', is a Pahlavi Rivayat in two Parts, with an appendix containing some miscellaneous passages of a similar character found in some old MSS.; altogether containing about 13,700 words and translated in SBE. The content of this collection are of a very varied character, but sins and good works, precautions to avoid impurities, details of ceremonies and customs, the mystic signification of the Gathas, and praise of the sacred beings are the principal subjects discussed. The whole of the collection is found in MH6, written in 1397, but the Parts are widely separated, and so are most of the chapters in the appendix. The two Parts are also found separated in the equally-old codex K20, the first Part being copied from a MS. of 1331; but of the appendix only chapters xviii, xix, xxi are found in K20.

The Dana-i Menog-i khrat, or 'opinions of the spirit of wisdom', comprise the replies of that spirit to sixty-two inquiries, or groups of inquiries, made by a certain wise man regarding various subjects connected with the Zoroastrian religion. This treatise contains about 11,000 words, and was long known, like the Shikand-gumanic Vichar (53), only through its Pazand-Sanskrit version, prepared by Neryosang about 700 years ago. But a copy of the greater part of the original Pahlavi text, written in 1569 and descended from an Indian MS., was found in the codex K43 brought from Persia by Westergaard in 1843; and a facsimile of this text was edited by Andreas in 1882. Another copy of the Pahlavi text, which supplies the contents of ten folios lost from K43, is known to be in the possession of Tahmuras Dinshawji Anklesaria in Bombay, but it has not been examined. The oldest known copy of the Pazand-Sanskrit version is in L19, and was written at Naosari in 1520. Spiegel published several extracts from the Pazand text, with German translations of the same and others, in 1851 and 1860. And a complete transliteration of the Pazand and Sanskrit texts, with an English translation, was published by West in 1871; followed by a translation of the Pahlavi text in 1885.

The Stayishn-i Si-rozak, or 'praise of the thirty days', containing about 5260 words, is also called a Spasdarih or Sifat. It praises and invokes Aurmazd as the creator of each of the thirty sacred beings whose names are applied to the days of the month, and whose attributes are detailed and blessed in succession. The Pahlavi text is found complete in L26 and K24, and a single folio, written by the writer of MH6 in the fourteenth century, and containing the greater part of the praise of Mah, is among the MSS. collected by the Revd. Dr. Wilson, and now in Earl Crawford's library at Wigan. In the same library is a very small and imperfect MS. of the Pazand version, obtained by Dr. Guise at Surat last century, and containing more or less of the text referring to Days 6-8, 13-23, and 27-30, but about two-fifths of the whole text is missing, and many of the Pahlavi words are not transliterated.

The Arta-Viraf Namak contains about 8,800 words, and is a description of heaven and hell as seen by the righteous Viraf in a seven-day's vision occasioned by the use of narcotics. The text was edited, with an English translation, by Hoshang and Haug in 1872; and a French translation was published in 1887. This tale contains no certain indication of the time when it was written, as the supposed allusion to the Denkart, in AV. i, 16, is doubtful. In another place (AV. i, 35) it is stated, with reference to the name of Viraf, that 'there are some who say the name is Nikhshahpur', which is evidently intended to identify him with the commentator of that name, who is said, by Manushchihr in his Epistle I. iv, 17 (see 48), to have been a councillor of king Khusro-i Kavatan (531-578); but the tale about him may have been written at any later period. The oldest known MSS. of this text are contained in the two codices of the fourteenth century K20 and MH6 (see 42); this tale is the first text in K20 and the twelfth in MH6, and it will now be convenient to describe all the remaining Pahlavi texts in these two codices.

The Matigan-i Yosht-i Fryan, or 'particulars of Yosht-i Fryan', is a tale of 3000 words, appended to the preceding one in both codices, which relates how the wizard Akht came to a certain city and killed every one who could not answer the questions he put to them, till the righteous Yosht appeared and answered 33 questions asked by Akht who, in his turn, was unable to answer a single one of three questions asked by Yosht who then destroyed him. This legend is based upon allusions made in the Avesta Yasht V, 81-83, and the text was edited, with an English translation, by West and Haug in the same volume as AV. in 1872; a French translation was also published in 1889. A colophon appended to this tale in MH6, but copied from an earlier MS., states that both AV and Yf were copied by Rustakhm, son of Mihraban, in 1269 from a MS. written by Mihr-panah, son of Sroshyar, of Nishahpur, which is the earliest known record of the existence of these texts.

The Bahman Yasht, containing about 4200 words, immediately follows the Bundahishn in K20, but no other complete and independent copy of the Pahlavi text is known. A fragment of the text (Byt. i, 0-6) also follows the Bundahishn on the last surviving folio of K20b (see 42); and K43 contains the first-fifths of the text, as far as iii, 31, on its fols. 262-275, and supplies seven short passages ommitted in K20, but it omits a larger number and its text is generally less correct. Pazand versions of the text exist, like MH22, but they are all very imperfect. The work professes to be a prophetical account of the future fate of the Iranian nation and religion, given by Aurmazd to Zartusht; and it has been translated in SBE. A German translation of some passages, with a brief summary of the remainder, was also published in 1860, in Spiegel's Traditionelle Literature der Parsen.

The Andarz-i Aoshnar-i danak, or 'admonition of the wise Aoshnar', follows the Bahman Yasht in K20, and has not been found elsewhere, except in copies of K20. This text contains about 1400 words, and about 600 more are now missing owing to the loss of two central folios, the contents of which will probably be found in the Paris copy P33. There seems little doubt that the writer of this Andarz has adopted the name of 'Aoshnar-i danak, which he also writes Aoshnor-i pur-xirat, from the Av. Aoshnaro pouru-jiro of Yt. XIII, 131, who is called Aoshnor-i pur-xirato in Dk. xlviii, 33. The admonitions are given in reply to questions asked by a disciple, and commence with statements of the particular circumstances under which one, two, three, four, five, six, or more specified things exist, or are most essential. The latter part states what is best when done and not done, preserved and repelled, abandoned and taken up; what deceives and what is immortal.

The Matigan-i gujastak Abalish, or 'particulars of the accursed Abalish', follow the Andarz in K20, and contain about 1200 words. They profess to give an account of a religious disputation between the Zandik heretic Abalish and Atur-farnbag, son of Farrukhzat, in the presence of the Khalifah Al-Mamun about the year 825. This Atur-farnbag was the leader of the religion who began the compilation of the Denkart (see 34), and his replies to the seven sceptical inquiries made by the heretic are stated to have given satisfaction to the Khalifah and his court. Barthelemy edited this text in 1887 from P33, a copy of K20 made in 1737, collated with the Pazand version found in MH22, which is independent of K20, and with the Parsi-Persian version in MH7 copied in 1809; to which he added a French translation, commentary, and glossary. Owing to some dislocation of old folios near the end of the text, MH7 has substituted a page of a different text in place of the correct one, and a further fragment of this different text occurs in J (see 74).

A very short text of 90 words follows this disputation in K20, and gives the replies of a learned Greek (Romih), a Hindu, and Aturpat-i Maraspendan to questions asked by the king of kings, regarding the best and worst things.

The Patit-i khut, or 'renunciation of one's own sin', contains about 1000 words, and its Pahlavi text is found in MH6, fols. 127-131, and also at the end of K20 in which the last folio is lost. The Patits, or forms of renouncing all imaginable sins, and of expressing the renouncer's belief in the religion, are more usually found written in Pazand, from which version Spiegel's translation are made.

The The Patit of Aturpat, son of Maraspand, containing about 1490 words, has been completely examined only in its Pazand version, from which Spiegel has translated it. But about half of its Pahlavi text exists in a very old fragment, on five folios, in the handwriting of Peshotan Ram Kamden, who wrote MH6 in 1397. This fragment formerly belonged to the Revd. Dr. Wilson of Bombay, but is now in the library of Earl Crawford at Wigan; owing to a few peculiarities in the orthography of its text it seems probable that it was derived from a Pazand original. An old copy of Neryosang's Paz.-Skr. version occurs in J9 (see 24).

The Patit-i Iranig, or 'Persian renunciation', contains about 2200 words, and occurs only in Persian and Pazand. It has been translated into German by Spiegel, and into French by Darmesteter. And the Patit-i Vitartakan, or 'renunciation for the dead', contains only about 1100 words, owing to several abbreviations of the text, and has been found only in Pazand; the oldest copy seen being in J9 (see 24).

The Jamasp Namak, containing about 5000 words, professes to give the answers of the high-priest Jamasp to certain questions asked by king Vishtasp, about what existed before the creation, and the order in which the creation occured; the history of the early rulers from Gayomart to Kai-Lohrasp; the people of the other six regions, of Alburz, Kangdez, Var-i Yimkart, Iran-vej, Hindus, Chinese, Arabs, and those of Turkistan and Barbaristan; the deformed races of men, and those who live in the sea; why men were created to go to hell; whether the people of Mazendaran and Turkistan are men or demons; the origin of cleverness, the good works of kings, and Vishtasp's grief; the future kings of Persia, the Arab conquest, and the future fate of the religion. This treatise may possibly have been written by some priest named Jamasp, and was therefore called Jamaspi. It is usually found in the form of a Pazand or Parsi version, evidently transcribed a Pahlavi original; and sometimes a Persian paraphrase is met with. The Parsi version occurs in MH7, fols. 133-151, but is not quite complete at the end. The only Pahlavi copy, that is known, consists of two fragments in an imperfect codex belonging to Dastur Peshotan in Bombay, which is probably five centuries old. In this codex (Pt.) the Jamasp-namak occupied the first 32 folios, but of these only fols. 17-19 and 27-31 are now existing.

The next surviving folios of Pt. are 74-77. Fol. 74 begins in the middle of a Pahlavi text by comparing mankind to a bag full of wind, and to a sucking child, which comparisons are followed by the Hekayat-i Rozha, or 'statement of the days', containing about 300 words which detail suitable actions for each day in the month. And this is followed, without any interval, by the conclusion of an Andarz, or 'admonition', addressed by Aturpat-i Maraspandan to his son. There can be no doubt that this is the conclusion of his Pand-namak (see 73) which is usually called his Andarz, and is addressed to his son. But the Hekayat may have become interpolated by mistake in some former MS. The last two-thirds of the Hekayat and the end of the Andarz also occur in J (see 73), an old codex of short Pahlavi texts belonging to Dastur Jamasp of Bombay. A transliteration and French transliteration of these fragments of the Andarz and Hekayat were published in Le museon in 1887. Pt. fol. 77 also contains the Matigan-i si Yazdan (see 94) which are translated in SBE.

The next surviving folios of Pt. are 100-132 which contain the following texts:-The Matigan-i mah Fravartin roz Khurdat, containing about 760 words, and stating the remarkable events that happen on the sixth day of the first month of the parsi year, from the creation to the resurrection. The Drakht-i Asurig and the Chatrang-namak which are among the non-religious texts (see 102 and 103). Injunctions to Beh-dens, which contain about 800 words and occur also in J, relate to daily religious duties and avoidance of demons, sins and the evil eye, also the killing of noxious creatures, the use of a tooth-pick, and the watch kept over the souls in hell by the chief stars and other spirits. A short Afrin of about 130 words, invoking the bestowal of the good qualities of a dozen celebrated individuals upon the person addressed. The Matigan-i Si-roz, or 'particulars about the thirty days' of the month, contain about 1150 words, and mention the suitable actions for each day in greater detail than is done in the Hekayat mentioned in 67, besides including the five Gatha days at the end of the year; this text also occurs in the Vichirkart-i Denig (see 32), with an interpolated passage about the day Atur. And the commencement of a seventh text, not yet identified, which begings as follows:- 'The sacred beings shall consider us worthy through the development of the righteousness by which worthiness becomes gain and the acquirement of happiness; and they allot to us, ever anew, the recompence for righteousness, &c.' After nearly a page of this text some folios appear to be missing, although there is no omission here in the numbering of the folios. The remaining folios of Pt., which are numbered 133-161 and 163, contain eight short texts which are all found likewise in J.

The old codex J, belonging to Dastur Jamasp, has now only 142 folios, but about 38 others have been lost, and about 24 of these were missing in 1721, when a copy of this codex was made by a son of Jamasp Asa of Naosari. The last folio of J contains a colophon written in 1322 by Mihraban, son of Kai-Khusro, the writer of K1, K5, and J2, who copied all these MSS. for a Parsi named Tshahil; but it is not certain that this codex was actually written by him, the handwriting being more like that in K20; and, as the end of the colophon is lost, it may have been followed by another, dated a few years later. In its present state, J contains 35 short Pahlavi texts in a more or less dilapidated conditions, but the defective passages are easily restored, in most cases, by means of the copy made in 1721, and often from some of the texts in Pt. The first four texts, being not religious, will be described hereafter in 97-100.

The fifth text in J is the Pand-namak-i Zartusht which contains about 1430 words supposed to convey the admonitions of the priest Zartusht, who may be intended for the son of Aturpat-i Maraspandan (see 73). Dastur published this text in Pahlavi and Pazand, with Gujarati and english translations in 1885, printing it as 121-159 of his Ganje Shayagan. Dastur Hoshang of Poona has a modern MS. JE, written by Jamshet Edal in 1813, which contains this and several of the following texts, copied apparently from some old codex independent of J. The first four-fifth of this Pandnamak are also found in K29.

The next text in J may be classed with six others, which are separated from it and very short, under the general title of Admonitions to Mazdayasnians, containing altogether 980 words. The first of these seven texts refers chiefly to daily religious duties and the reasons for them. The second states the best wealth, child, brother, protector, companion, store, friend, conductor, &c. The third relates to religious and social duties, and the necessity for virtue. The fourth states the condition of him who is in trouble, sorrowful, disreputable, despicable, feeble, or worse than all. The fifth states for what things there is no equal, no fame, no guard, &c. The sixth mention liberality, truth, marriage, family management, and eight other duties. And the seventh states how good works and duties should be performed, and that nothing is good unless permanent.

The Andarz-i Khusro-i Kavatan, containing 380 words, professes to be the dying injunctions of king Khusro-i Anoshak-ravan to his people. It is placed in J betwenn the first and second admonitory texts described in 71, and was published by Dastur Peshotan in Pahlavi and Pazand, with Gujarati and English translations, in 1885, with his Ganje Shayagan. A transliteration, with English translation, was also published by Casartelli in 1887; and another by Saleman, with a German translation, a few months earlier.

The Andarz-i Aturpat-i Maraspandan, professing to be his advice to his son Zartusht, follows the fifth of the admonitory texts described in 71, but appears to be incomplete in all copies known. About 1730 words of this text were edited in Pahlavi and Pazand, with a Gujarati translation by Sheriarjee Dadabhoy in 1869, from which an English translation was made by the Revd. Shapurji Edalji in 1870; and they were again edited, with Gujarati and English translations, by Dastur Peshotan in 1885, with his Ganje Shayagan; a French translation was also published in 1887. In J, after the first 1300 words, about eight folios are lost, and the next two folios contain the latter part of the Hekayat-i Rozha and the end of the Andarz, or about 360 words together; while 1350 words are supposed to be lost from J, of which 570 can be recovered from the printed editions and from Pt. (see 67), leaving 780 still missing. The original extent of this Andarz, including the interpolated Hekayat must, therefore, have been more than 3000 words.

The next folio in J is lost, and the following ones begins in the middle of the short text of which a fragment has been substituted in MH6 for chaps. viii, 15-ix, 6 of the Matigan-i gujastak Abalish (see 61). This fragment begins in MH6, fol. 164b, with the names of five of the arch-demons, and states that good works lead to the supreme heaven which is described, by a corrupt quotation from the Hatokht Nask and the final abode of the righteous. This is followed by a short fragment of the sayings of Veh-zat-i Farrukh-piruz, which are interrupted by the loss of another folios. The next surviving folio begins in the middle of a series of admonitions, chiefly in praise of wisdom, which extend to about 380 words, of which the first 114 are recovered from JE (see 70).

The Sayings of Atur-farnbag and Bakht-afrit are two short texts in J, containing altogether 320 words, which follow the sixth and seventh admonitory texts described in 71. The former sayings, attributed to the first compiler of the Denkart, are about wisdom and the cultivation of wisdom. The latter sayings, attributed to a commentator of the time of king Khusro-i Kavatan, among several miscellaneous statements, mention that Aturpat-i Zartushtan lived for 150 years and was supreme high-priest for 90 years; as, according to Dk. III, cxxxvii, 2 (ed. Peshotan), he was high-priest in the reign of Yazdkart, son of Shahpur, (399-420), he was, no doubt, a grandson of Aturpat-i Maraspandan.

These sayings are followed in J by two colophons, referring to all the preceding yatkariha, or 'memoranda'. The first colophon states that a copy of these memoranda was finished in the fire-temple at Brugatsh (Bharutsh), on the eight day of the eleventh month A. Y. 624 (15 December 1255) by Den-panah-i Aetarpai-i Den-panah, for a certain Shahzat-i Shatan-i Farrukh-Aurmazd. And the second colophon records the completion of a later copy at Tamuk in Gujarat on 4 July 1322 by Mihraban-i Kai-Khusro. These colophons are followed by the short Nirang for destroying noxious creatures that was published by Hoshang and Haug in the Old Pahlavi-Pazand Glossary. And the next text, being not religious, will be described in 101.

The Pandnamak-i Vozurg-Mihr-i Bukhtakan contains about 1760 words, of which only the first 500 survive in J, owing to the loss of fourteen folios; but the copy of 1721 contains the whole of this text. This book of advice begins with a statement attributed to Vozurg-Mihr, the prime-minister of king Khusro, that this memorandum was prepared for instruction and deposited in the royal treasury (ganj-i shahigan) by command of the king. Hence Dastur Peshotan has edited nearly all the Pahlavi-Pazand text, with Gujarati and English translations, under the title of Ganje-shayagan, 1--119; and a transliteration and French translation of the conclusion of the text will be found in Le Museon, vi, 265, 266.

As the copy of 1721 inserts the Matigan-i mah Fravartin roz Khurdat in this place, it must have been at the latter end of the fourteen folios missing from J, being followed, as in Pt. (see 68), by the Drakht-i Asurig (the begining of which is lost in J), Chatrang-namak, and Injunctions to Behdens (102, 103, 68), after which either two or fourteen folios are again missing from J; the next surviving folio beginning with the conclusion of a text, giving directions about forming a deliberative assembly of sages at the royal residence. All the remaining texts in J occur in the same order at the end of Pt. and are described in the following 79-84.

The Five dispositions of priests and ten admonitions for disciples, contain about 250 words, and are found not only in these two old codices, but also in the Selections of Zat-sparam, part I (see 49), the Vichirkart-i Denig (see 32), and other MSS. The five dispositions are innocence, discrimination, authoritativeness, correctness in ritual, and intelligence in duty. And the admonitions advise every one to be honourable and well-behaving, free from malice, holy, and pure. For Forms of Epistles and Marriage Contract, the two texts which follow in J and Pt., see 104 and 105.

Vachak aechand-i Aturpat-i Maraspandan contain about 1270 words in J and Pt., and profess to be the dying advice of Aturpat, not to hoard, not to bear malice, but to give true evidence, to eat and speak with moderation, and to marry a relation; not to be too joyful or too sorrowful, nor to break promises, nor to trust women or ignorant people, but to keep open house for all comers; not to ridicule, but to converse with the good; &c.

The Daruk-i Khursandih, in 120 words, is a prescription for preparing a medicine for producing contentment, in J and Pt. Briefly as follows:-Mingle one portion of the knowledge of contentment, one of perseverance, one of daily improvement, one of not becoming worse, one of the comfort of contentment, and one of the discomfort of discontent, in a mortar and pound them with the pestle of reverence; strain them carefully, and take two spoonfuls daily at dawn with the spoon of prayer to the sacred beings.

The Stayishn-i Dron, in 560 words, is an Afrin in J and Pt., to be used at feasts where the sacred cakes are consecrated, for the purpose of invoking blessings on Aurmazd and the Ameshaspands, the seven heavens and seven regions, all fires and sacred beings, the king of kings and royal princes, the prime minister (Vozurg farmatar) and the sipahpats of the east, west, and south, the district judges, the andarzpat and hazarpat, the partakers of the dron, the guests at the myazd, the zot and the master of the house.

The Coming of Vahram-i Varjavand, in 190 words in J and Pt., professes to be prophetical statement in reply to the question: 'When shall it be?' The reply is to the effect that, when a messanger comes from the Hindus and king Vahram of the Kayan family has appeared, an army with elephants will be assembled under the command of the prudent Taliman of Bagsir, who will address the Hindus with a statement of the evil doings of the Arabs, and how they are to be driven out and the Persian rule to be restored.

The Characteristic of a happy Man, and of other classes of men, is the last text both in J and Pt. only one-third of it being extant in the latter codex; and, as the folios in J are extensively worn-eaten, it is necessary to reply upon the copy made in 1721 for many passages. The happy man is described as observant and diligent in doing good and avoiding evil; other men mentioned are those of ability and of no resources, the pure, the successful, and others.

There are several Afrins, or benedictive formulas, besides the short one mentioned in 63, but half of them have been found only in Pazand. The Afrin-i shash Gahanbar contains about 1370 words, including 200 in Avesta quotations, in praise of the celebration of the season-festivals; it is found in L26, K12, MH20, and the Rivayats, and has been translated into German by Spiegel in his Khorda-Avesta. The Afrin-i haft Ameshaspand, which is also called Afrin-i Dahman in MH20 and the Rivayats, contains about 700 words, and has been translated by Spiegel in his Khorda-Avesta. In J58 (see 30), under the heading Afrin-i Dahman, are found the following Pahlavi texts:- Afrin-i shash Gahanbar, 1-4, Aogemadaecha, and Afrin-i haft Ameshaspand, part of 17 and all of 18; this insertion of the Aogemadaecha, between the beginning of one Afrin and the end of another, has probably been caused by the loss and displacement of folios in some very old MS. The Afrin-i Arta-fravash contains about 530 words, and is found in MH20 and the Rivayats. The Afrin-i Myazd contains about 450 words, and is found in the Rivayats and transliterated into Pahlavi in J58; the Afrin-i Vozurgan, of about 200 words, is similarly found in the same MSS.; and both this Afrins imitate the Av. Afrin-i Zartusht by praying for the gift of particular qualities for which certain persons in ancient times were celebrated, but with variations of names and details. The Afrin-i Gahanbar Chashnih, of about 200 words when abbreviated, is also found in the Rivayats.

Allied to the Afrins is the Nirang-i Boi-datan va Yatkartan, or Ritual of supplying incense and calling to remembrance, which is an introduction (dibacha) to the Afringan. It varies in length from 290 to 630 words, according to the number of celebrated deceased persons called to remembrance. It has been found only in Pazand, and has been translated by Spiegel, in its shortest form, in his Khorda-Avesta. In the Rivayats it appears with the following very miscellaneous list of names:-Zartusht, Gushtasp, Lohrasp, Jamasp, Bahman-i Isfendiar, Arda-Viraf, Ardashir-i Papakan, Aturpat-i Maraspand, Shapur-i Ardashiran, the twelfth century Indian Mobads Shapur-i Shahriar, Neryosang-i Dhaval, and Hormazyar-i Ramyar; the last wife, three sons, one grandson, mother, uncle, cousin, father, and thirteen ancestors of Zartusht back to Manushchihr; also the sixteenth century layman Bahman-i Manek of Naosari.

The Matigan-i haft Ameshaspand, or 'particulars of the seven Ameshaspand', containing about 1000 words, is translated in SBE. It is the ninth text in MH6, where it follows the Patit-i khut, as it does also in L15; and a Pazand version, derived from the same original, is found in L22.

A Father instructing his Son is a text of about 600 words, clearly Pahlavi in idiom, found in a Pazand version in MH22, divided into 72 numbered sentences; and Tahmuras has an old Paz.-Skr. copy, following a Menog-i-Khrat. It begins with words that express the Pahlavi phrase:-Pursit pus-i danishno-kam, 'a son desiring knowledge asked' for an explanation of the reasons for wearing the Kusti, or sacred thread-girdle. The father, who loved wisdom (danai dosht), begins by explaining that for the guidance of knowledge it is necessary to understand, but for the guidance of conduct only faith is requisite; he also compares the position of the girdle on the waist, between the superior and inferior parts of the body, to the position of the earth between heaven and hell.

The Andarz-i danak Mart, or 'advice of a wise man' to his son, contain about 520 words, and has been found only in Pazand in L22, and L7. The advice is somewhat similar to that of Aturpat-i Maraspandan (see 73).

The Ashirvad, or Marriage 'Blessing', contains from 460 to 590 words in the various versions. It is found in Pahlavi in J58, with the date A.Y. 767; in Sanskrit in J9, with the date Samvat fifteenth century; in Pazand-Sanskrit-Gujarati in MH21, with the date A.Y. 866, Samvat 1552; and in Pazand on some MH loose folios, with the date A.Y. twelfth century. This Blessing has been translated by Spiegel in his Khorda-Avesta.

The Chim-i Dron, or 'meaning of the sacred cake', is a symbolical description of the Dron and its consecration, in about 380 words, comparing the Dron to the earth surrounded by Alburz, with Chakat-i Daitig in the centre, represented by the gaush hud a, &c. The Pahlavi text is found in J58, and a paraphrase of it in the Rivayat preceding the Datistan (see 47). The Pazand version occurs in L22 and L7, and is followed by some further remarks upon various irregularities which nullify the Dron ritual, extending to about 160 extra words which are translated in SBE. These further remarks are also found in Pahlavi in MH6, MH9, K20, and L15.

The Namaz-i Aurmazd is a formula of grateful praise of the creator, containing about 340 words. The text was edited by Sachau, with a German translation in 1873; from a British museum MS.; and Darmesteter published a French translation in 1891, based upon a collation of this text with two printed in Bombay, in Persian and Gujarati characters, respectively. A Pazand copy of the text occurs in the Rivayat of Darab Hormazyar written in 1679, where it is called a Stayishn to be recited daily after the Khurshet and Mihr Nyayishes, in the Havan or morning Gah. Several passages in this Pazand text have been evidently derived from a Pahlavi original, especially those which Darmesteter traces to a Jewish source, and which have also been compared to sayings attributed to Thales and Plato by Diogenes Laertius and Plutarch in his Life of Marius. A notable instance of the uncertainty of mere textual identity as a proof of plagiarism.

The Nam-stayishnih, containing about 260 words, is in praise of the name and attributes of Aurmazd. The Pahlavi text is found in J58, but Spiegel has translated the formula, from a Pazand version, in his Khorda-Avesta.

The Matigan-i si Yazdan, or 'particulars of the thirty sacred beings', contains about 80 words, forming Shayast ne-Shayast appendix in SBE. This text merely enumerates the qualities of the thirty sacred beings, and two old versions are extant in Pahlavi, one in MH6 and the other in Pt. (see 42, 67)

Abstracted from : Pahlavi literature, E.W. West,
in Grundriss der iranischen Philologie, II. Band, Wilh. Geiger und Ernst Kuhn, Strassburg, 1896-1904

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